Beginner's Guide to Investing in Stocks | Stock Market Basics

Last updated:
Beginner's Guide to Investing in Stocks

Welcome to the definitive guide to investing in stocks for beginners.

What's the highlight?

You don't need a degree in finance or tons of disposable income to start. In fact, with the right strategy, even small investments can yield significant returns over time.

Ever dreamt of building your wealth and securing a stable financial future? Stock investment could be your path to realizing those dreams, and it’s not as complex as many believe. With the right knowledge and a pinch of patience, you can potentially see your money grow, setting you on a path to financial freedom.

Ready to take the first step towards becoming a savvy stock market investor? Let’s dive into the essentials.

What's a Stock?

Stock is generally considered an equity which is used to describe the ownership certificates of the company. The unit of stocks is referred to as shares. These stocks are exchanged, which means bought and sold, mostly on stock exchanges or stock markets.

What's the Stock Market?

Before we get to how you can invest in stocks, we shall know a bit about the stock market. The collection of the stocks that can be bought and sold in stock exchanges is referred to as the stock market. The general public invests their money in stocks with the help of the stock market.

Now first things first, let's go through and understand a few important terms that you need to know before investing in stocks:

ParticipantsInvestors, traders, and institutions buy and sell shares of publicly listed companies.
PurposeCompanies raise capital by issuing shares, while investors aim to profit from share price appreciation.
ExchangesStock exchanges (e.g., NSE, BSE) provide a platform for trading shares.
Listed CompaniesCompanies go public through an Initial Public Offering (IPO), offering shares to the public to raise funds.
Stock PriceDetermined by supply and demand; higher demand usually increases price, while lower demand decreases it.
Market OrdersBuy/sell orders executed immediately at prevailing market prices.
Limit OrdersBuy/sell orders at specific price; executed when market reaches the specified price or better.
Bids/Asks"Bids" are buy orders; "Asks" are sell orders. The best bid and ask together form the current market price.
Market IndicesMeasure overall market performance (e.g., S&P 500, Dow Jones), composed of selected company stocks.
Market AnalysisFundamental analysis (company financials), technical analysis (price patterns), and news influence decisions.
Market HoursTrading occurs during specific hours, varying by exchange and region.
Market OrdersPrices can be volatile due to news, economic data, and market sentiment.
RisksInvestment risk due to market fluctuations, company performance, economic factors, and unforeseen events.
Long and ShortLong position: Buying to profit from price increase. Short selling: Selling borrowed shares to profit from decrease.
DividendsPeriodic payments to shareholders from company profits.
Corporate ActionsMergers, splits, acquisitions can impact stock prices.
RegulationRegulated by government bodies to ensure fairness and prevent fraud.
Market PsychologyInvestor sentiment and emotions impact market movements.

So if you want to invest your money in stocks, you should start your journey through the stock market.

Steps To Invest In Stocks

If you want to invest in stocks, you will have to follow some basic steps that are mentioned below:

Step #1: Decide How You Want To Invest In The Stock Market

The first thing that you need to understand here is how you would like to invest in the stock market. Stock investing can be approached in various ways.

The first thing that you can do is to go for the investment on your own. If you have enough knowledge about the market, it shouldn't be a tough decision. You just need to see how the market behaves and put in your funds accordingly.

For example, let's say you are a 25-year-old working professional with a monthly income of Rs 50,000. You have decided to invest in stocks on your own. You open a brokerage account and start researching stocks to invest in.

If you don't have enough knowledge, it is better to take the help of an expert. You will have to pay a particular fee to the expert but it will almost ensure that you get great returns on your investments.

For example, let's say you are a 40-year-old entrepreneur with a net worth of Rs 10 crore. You have decided to invest in stocks but don't have the time or expertise to do it on your own. You hire an expert financial advisor to help you create a portfolio of stocks. The advisor recommends that you invest in a mix of stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.

Step #2: Selecting An Investing Account

The next thing that you can try to do is to select an investing account. You will have to take some help to create this account. A robo-advisor will fit the bill perfectly and allow you to select the investing account as per your desires.

There's always that DIY option to create a brokerage account. It can be made quickly and it will offer you the least expensive path to buying stocks, funds and a variety of other investments. But it would always be better to choose a robo-advisor who provides complete investment management.

The cost is generally very economical with a robo-advisor, you're only required to pay about 0.25% of your account balance.

Step #3: Understanding The Difference In Stocks And Funds

For starters, stocks and funds might seem like the same thing. But there's a clear difference in daylight here.

When we talk about funds, say mutual funds, you purchase small pieces of many different stocks in a single transaction. You will invest in different companies here, meaning that you will have a share in each of these companies.

But if you want to invest only in a specific company, you should go for individual stocks instead. You can buy as many shares of that particular company based on your desires.

Investing in stocks would generally be more risky. If you want to start your journey by going at a low risk, you should invest in mutual funds.

Step #4: Setting A Budget

Now that you have decided which stock or mutual fund you would like to invest in, the next step is to set a budget for it.

You must be curious to understand how much money you need to start investing in stocks. In case you want to invest in mutual funds, an ETF would be the most suitable.

You can allocate more money if you want to invest in individual stocks. But you have to be sure about the returns they give you in the times to come.

Step #5: Focusing On The Long-Term

If you keep a short-term objective with your investment journey, you won't be able to reap your maximum benefits. Stocks are best suited when you want to generate wealth in the long term. Over several decades, the average stock market return is about 10% per year.

It doesn't mean that you will get this 10% interest all the time. Sometimes it can go down and some other times it might go up as well. You don't have to check how your stock is doing on an everyday basis. If you have faith in them, let them give you results in the long run and have some patience.

Step #6: Manage Your Portfolio

Lastly, you will be required to manage your portfolio. We have already said how it can reap your best results in the long term. One of the things that you have to do consistently in the long term is the management of your portfolio.

You have to be sure about what you need from your investments. You can look at your portfolio and see if your investments are in line with your goal. You should do it a few times throughout the year.

Understand The Difference Between Investing in a Stock & Investing in a Fund

AspectInvesting in Individual StocksInvesting in Funds
Investment TypeDirect ownership of specific company shares.Ownership of a collection of various securities.
DiversificationLimited diversification, risk tied to one stock.Diversified portfolio across multiple assets.
RiskHigher risk due to lack of diversification.Lower risk due to diversified holdings.
Research RequiredIn-depth research needed for each company.Less research, managed by professionals.
ManagementSelf-managed; decisions impact one's own portfolio.Managed by professional fund managers.
Time CommitmentRequires significant time for research/trading.Less time-consuming; professionals manage.
Potential ReturnsHigher potential returns if right picks made.Typically stable, more moderate returns.
VolatilityCan experience higher price volatility.Smoother ride due to diversified holdings.
CostsLower transaction costs per stock bought/sold.Fund fees (expense ratio) may apply.
Entry PointPossible with small capital for cheaper stocks.Requires more capital due to fund minimums.
LiquidityHigh liquidity; stocks traded on exchanges.Generally liquid, but can vary by fund type.
Influence on HoldingsDirect influence on company policies/voting.Limited influence, votes through proxy.
Tax EfficiencyPotential for higher tax efficiency with planning.Tax-efficient strategies can be employed.
SuitabilityRequires active management and research skills.Suitable for passive investors seeking diversification.

Disclaimer: Remember that these differences are generalized and each individual's investment goals, risk tolerance, and preferences play a role in deciding between investing in individual stocks or funds.

Tips To Invest In Stock Market

We are pretty sure you need some tips to invest in the stock market as well. You can follow the steps that we have mentioned above but some tips might also be useful. Let's take a look at the tips one by one:

1. Buy The Right Investment

Buying the right investment is the best tip that we can offer to you. By the right investment, we don't mean a stock that has the highest value in the market currently. We refer to a stock or a fund that's yielding the best returns consistently.

2. Create A Diversified Portfolio

If your portfolio is shallow, it won't take much for it to get exposed. You might be earning huge profits today but it can lead to overnight losses within a short span. Therefore, it is important to diversify the portfolio.

You should know funds or stocks that are safe and invest your money into them. The diversification of the portfolio will decrease the risk and if you have invested in the right stock, you will get a fixed regular income on it.

3. Avoid Individual Stocks As A Beginner

We have already said how diversification of the portfolio is important to reduce risk. But if you've been investing for a while, you might have studied a particular stock that is providing the best results. In such a case, investing in individual stocks is not a bad decision. But if you're a newbie, avoid investing in individual stocks completely.

4. Avoid Short-Term Trading

Some people have unrealistic expectations from short-term trading. This type of trading is generally done by day traders who lose their money more often. You shouldn't be gambling with your hard-earned money, especially at the start of an investment career.

If you want money for a specific purpose, you should put it into low-risk investments that yield results in the long run.

5. Be Prepared For A Downturn

When you're investing your money in stocks, you should also come prepared for losses. Most people panic when the market sees a downturn and end up making several mistakes. This is something that needs to be avoided.

You shouldn't lose faith in a stock if it yields great results more often than not. If you go through this phase smoothly, you will reap great benefits in the long run.

Final Analysis

Investing in stocks is generally very rewarding. But you must avoid pitfalls that beginners face at the start of their investment journey.

Generally, investors at an early phase might find it a daunting task. But once you know what investment approach you want to use, things will start flowing smoothly.

A few things that you need to keep in mind regarding investing in stocks are:

  • To believe in the stocks that you invest in through thick and thin
  • To keep reviewing your investments several times a year 
  • If needed, take the help of an expert who helps you to improve your investments

For more information regarding the best stocks and mutual funds, you should sign up to the INDmoney app.

If you find this article useful, feel free to share it with your friends and family members!